Nathaniel Adderley (November 25, 1931 in Tampa, Florida – January 2, 2000 in Lakeland, Florida) was an American jazz cornet and trumpet player who played in the hard bop and soul jazz genres. He was the brother of saxophonist Julian "Cannonball" Adderley.
Nat moved to Tallahassee, Florida when both parents were hired to teach at Florida A&M University.Nat and Cannonall played with Ray Charles in the early 1940s in Tallahassee. In the 1950s he worked with his brother's original group, with Lionel Hampton, and with J. J. Johnson, then in 1959 joined his brother's new quintet and stayed with it until Cannonball's death in 1975. He composed "Work Song," "Jive Samba," and "The Old Country" for this group. 
After his brother's death he led his own groups and recorded extensively. During this period he worked with, among others, Ron Carter, Sonny Fortune, Johnny Griffin, Antonio Hart, and Vincent Herring.